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GATE Computer Networks and Web Technologies

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PUBLISHED FOR GATE 2016

Edition 1st
Publisher NODIA
Pages 532
Binding Paper Back
Language English

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SALIENT FEATURES

  • Brief Theory

  • Problem Solving Methodology

  • Fundamental Concepts & Formulae Review

  • Vast Question book with Full Solutions

  • Multiple Choice Questions, Memory Based Questions and Numerical Types Questions

  • Full width coverage of GATE Syllabus

  • Well explained and error free solutions


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER NETWORKS & THE PHYSICAL LAYER

1.1 COMPUTER NETWORK

1.1.1 Classifications of Computer Networks

1.2 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TRANSMISSION MEDIA

1.2.1 Guided Medium

1.2.2 Unguided Medium

1.3 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NETWORK SIZE:

1.3.1 Personal Area Network (PAN)

1.3.2 Local Area Network (LAN)

1.3.3 Wide Area Network (WAN)

1.3.4 Metropolitan-area network (MAN)

1.4 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NETWORK ARCHITECTURE:

1.4.1 Client-Server Network

1.4.2 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network

1.5 CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TOPOLOGY:

1.5.1 Bus Topology

1.5.2 Ring Topology

1.5.3 Mesh Topology

1.5.4 Star Topology

1.5.5 Tree Topology

1.6 INTERNET

1.6.1 Key Elements and Architecture

1.6.2 Accessing the Internet

1.6.3 Connection-less and Connection-oriented Service

1.6.4 Switching

1.6.5 ISPs and Internet Backbones

1.7 DELAY AND LOSS IN PACKET-SWITCHED NETWORKS

1.7.1 Processing Delay:

1.7.2 Queuing Delay:

1.7.3 Transmission Delay:

1.7.4 Propagation Delay:

1.7.5 Total delay (Latency)

1.8 PERFORMANCE OF NETWORK

1.8.1 Delay # Bandwidth

1.9 LAYER ARCHITECTURE

1.9.1 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model

1.9.2 TCP/IP Model

1.9.3 OSI versus TCP/IP

1.10 MESSAGES, SEGMENTS, DATAGRAMS, AND FRAMES

1.11 PHYSICAL LAYER DEFINITIONS

1.12 NYQUIST THEOREM

1.13 SHANNON’S CHANNEL CAPACITY

CHAPTER 2 THE LINK LAYER & LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

2.1 SERVICES PROVIDED BY LINK LAYER

2.1.1 Framing

2.1.2 Addressing

2.1.3 Error Control and Reliability

2.1.4 Flow Control

2.1.5 Medium Access Control

2.1.6 Where is the Link Layer Implemented ?

2.1.7 Data Link Sublayers

2.2 ERROR DETECTION

2.2.1 Parity Checks

2.2.2 Internet Checksum

2.2.3 Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

2.3 MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS

2.3.1 Ideal Multiple Access Protocol

2.3.2 Categories of Multiple Access Protocol


2.4 CHANNELIZATION PROTOCOLS

2.4.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

2.4.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

2.5 RANDOM ACCESS PROTOCOLS

2.5.1 Pure ALOHA

2.5.2 Slotted ALOHA

2.5.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)

2.5.4 CSMA/CD (Collision Detection)

2.6 CONTROLLED ACCESS PROTOCOLS (TAKING TURN PROTOCOLS)

2.6.1 Polling

2.6.2 Token passing

2.7 LINK LAYER ADDRESSING: MAC ADDRESS (ETHERNET ADDRESS OR LAN ADDRESS)

2.8 IEEE STANDARDS FOR LAN

2.9 802.3 IEEE STANDARD: ETHERNET

2.9.1 Ethernet Frame Structure

2.9.2 Minimum and Maximum Frame Length

2.9.3 Unreliable and Connectionless Service

2.9.4 Ethernet Evolution


CHAPTER 3 THE NETWORKS LAYER


3.1 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK LAYER

3.2 NETWORK LAYER SERVICES

3.2.1 Packetizing

3.2.2 Forwarding

3.2.3 Routing

3.2.4 Addressing

3.3 DATAGRAM AND VIRTUAL CIRCUITS

3.3.1 Datagram or connectionless approach

3.3.2 Virtual circuit (VC) or connection-oriented approach

3.4 WHAT IS A ROUTER ?

3.4.1 Functions of a Router

3.4.2 Structure of a Router

3.5 INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP)

3.5.1 IP Service

3.5.2 IP Datagram Format

3.5.3 Fragmentation

3.5.4 An Example of Fragmentation

3.6 IPV4 ADDRESSING

3.6.1 Hierarchy in Addressing

3.6.2 Classful Addressing

3.6.3 Subnetting

3.6.4 Classless Addressing

3.6.5 Special Address

3.7 ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (ARP)

3.7.1 ARP Packet Format

3.7.2 ARP Cache (Table)

3.7.3 Vulnerabilities of ARP

3.8 DYNAMIC HOST CONTROL PROTOCOL (DHCP)

3.8.1 Working of DHCP

3.8.2 Advantages and Disadvantage of DHCP

3.9 NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (NAT)

3.9.1 Problems with NAT

3.10 INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL (ICMP)

3.10.1 ICMP Message Format

3.10.2 Types of ICMP Messages

3.11 IPV6 (INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6)

3.11.1 Features of IPv6

3.11.2 IPv6 Header Format

3.11.3 Differences between IPv4 and IPv6

3.11.4 IPv6 Address

3.11.5 Transition from IPv4 to IPv6

3.12 ROUTING ALGORITHM

3.12.1 Goals of Routing Algorithms

3.12.2 Graph abstraction of a Network

3.12.3 Classification of Routing Algorithms

3.12.4 Link-State (LS) Routing Algorithm

3.12.5 Distance-Vector (DV) Routing Algorithm

3.13 INTERNET’S ROUTING PROTOCOLS

3.13.1 Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

3.13.2 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

3.13.3 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

CHAPTER 4 THE TRANSPORT LAYER

4.1 TRANSPORT LAYER SERVICES

4.1.1 Process-to-Process Communication

4.1.2 Process-Level Addressing

4.1.3 Segmentation

4.1.4 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

4.1.5 Flow Control

4.1.6 Error Control

4.1.7 Congestion Control

4.1.8 Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Services

4.2 TRANSPORT LAYER PORTS AND SOCKETS

4.2.1 Port Numbers

4.2.2 Sockets

4.3 USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)

4.3.1 UDP Segment

4.4 FLOW CONTROL AND ERROR CONTROL

4.5 STOP-AND-WAIT PROTOCOLS

4.5.1 Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol

4.5.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol with ARQ

4.6 SLIDING WINDOW PROTOCOL

4.6.1 Go-back-N ARQ

4.6.2 Selective-Repeat ARQ

4.7 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP)

4.7.1 TCP Segment

4.7.2 TCP Connection Establishment

4.7.3 TCP Connection Termination

4.7.4 TCP Flow Control

4.7.5 TCP Congestion Control


CHAPTER 5 THE APPLICATION LAYER


5.1 INTRODUCTION TO APPLICATION LAYER

5.2 APPLICATION-LAYER ARCHITECTURES

5.3 PROCESS COMMUNICATING

5.3.1 Socket

5.3.2 Process Addressing

5.4 APPLICATION LAYER PROTOCOLS

5.5 WORLD WIDE WEB AND HTTP

5.5.1 Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

5.5.2 HTTP Request and Response

5.5.3 Nonpersistent and Persistent Connections

5.5.4 HTTP Client and Server Tasks

5.5.5 HTTP Cookies

5.5.6 Web Caching (Proxy Server)

5.6 FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)

5.7 ELECTRONIC MAIL AND SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL (SMTP)

5.7.1 User Agent (UA)

5.7.2 Message transfer agent (MTA)

5.7.3 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)

5.8 MAIL ACCESS PROTOCOL (POP3 AND IMAP)

5.8.1 Post Office Protocol (POP3)

5.8.2 IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol)

5.8.3 Comparison between POP3 and IMAP

5.9 DOMAIN NAME SERVER (DNS)

5.9.1 DNS Name Hierarchy

5.9.2 Domain Name

5.9.3 DNS Caching

5.9.4 Resource Records


CHAPTER 6 NETWORK SECURITY

6.1 NETWORK SECURITY GOALS

6.1.1 Confidentiality

6.1.2 Integrity

6.1.3 Availability

6.2 SECURITY ATTACKS

6.2.1 Attacks Threating to Confidentiality

6.2.2 Attacks Threating to Integrity

6.2.3 Attacks Threating to Availability

6.2.4 Passive and Active Attacks

6.3 CRYPTOGRAPHY

6.3.1 Private Key Cryptography

6.3.2 Public-Key Cryptography

6.4 DIGITAL SIGNATURE

6.5 KEY MANAGEMENT

6.5.1 Key Distribution Center (KDC)

6.5.2 Certification Authority (CA)

6.6 FIREWALLS

6.6.1 Packet-filtering firewalls

6.6.2 Application-level Gateways (Proxy Firewall)

6.7 TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY (SSL/TLS)

6.8 NETWORK LAYER SECURITY (IPSEC)


CHAPTER 7 HTML


7.1 INTRODUCTION TO HTML

7.2 EVOLUTION OF HTML

7.3 HTML ELEMENTS, TAGS AND ATTRIBUTES

7.3.1 Elements

7.3.2 Tags

7.3.3 Attributes

7.4 HOW TO WRITE AND SAVE HTML DOCUMENTS

7.5 BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN HTML DOCUMENT

7.6 HTML FORMATTING TAGS

7.6.1 Headings

7.6.2 Paragraphs

7.6.3 Line Break

7.6.4 Horizontal Rules

7.6.5 Comments

7.6.6 Preformatted Text

7.6.7 Division

7.7 PRESENTATIONAL TAGS

7.7.1 The <font> Tag

7.7.2 Bold, Italic, and Underlined text

7.7.3 Big and small text

7.7.4 Superscripts and Subscripts

7.7.5 The <tt> Tag

7.7.6 Emphasized Text

7.7.7 Strong Text

7.7.8 Center text

7.8 HTML LISTS

7.8.1 Unordered Lists

7.8.2 Ordered Lists

7.8.3 Definition Lists

7.9 HTML TABLES

7.9.1 Attributes of <table> Tag

7.9.2 Rowspan and Colspan Attributes

7.10 HTML LINKS

7.10.1 Attributes of Anchor Tag

7.10.2 Email Link

7.11 IMAGES

7.11.1 Image Attributes

7.11.2 Image Maps

7.12 HTML FRAMES

7.12.1 The <frameset> Tag

7.12.2 The <frame> Tag

7.12.3 The <noframes> Tag

7.12.4 Inline frames

7.13 HTML FORMS

7.13.1 The <input> Tag

7.14 META TAG


CHAPTER 8 XML

8.1 INTRODUCTION TO XML

8.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HTML AND XML

8.3 BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN XML DOCUMENT

8.3.1 XML Declaration

8.4 XML ELEMENTS

8.4.1 Naming Rules

8.4.2 Empty Elements

8.4.3 Nested Elements

8.5 XML ATTRIBUTES

8.6 XML ELEMENTS V/S ATTRIBUTES

8.7 XML TREE

8.8 XML COMMENTS

8.9 WELL-FORMED XML

8.10 VALID XML

8.11 VIEWING XML

8.12 XML NAMESPACE

8.12.1 Default Namespace

8.13 XML DTD

8.13.1 Internal DTD

8.13.2 External DTD

8.14 DTD ELEMENTS

8.14.1 Declaring an Element

8.14.2 Empty Elements

8.14.3 Simple Elements

8.14.4 Compound Elements

8.14.5 Mixed Content Elements

8.15 DTD ATTRIBUTES

8.15.1 Default Value

8.15.2 Required Value

8.15.3 Implied Value

8.15.4 Fixed Value

8.15.5 Enumerated Attribute Values

8.16 DTD ENTITIES

8.16.1 Internal Entity

8.16.2 External Entity

8.17 XML SCHEMA

8.17.1 Structure of Schema

8.18 XML XSLT

8.19 XML PARSER

8.19.1 DOM: Document Object Model

8.19.2 SAX: Simple API for XML


CHAPTER 9 CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING


9.1 CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING

9.2 COMPONENTS IN CLIENT-SERVER COMPUTING

9.2.1 Client

9.2.2 Server

9.2.3 Middleware

9.3 CLIENT SERVER MODEL OF COMPUTING

9.3.1 Client’s Responsibility

9.3.2 Server’s Functions

9.3.3 Client Server Interaction

9.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CLIENT AND THE SERVER

9.5 CLIENT-SERVER ARCHITECTURE

9.5.1 Single Tier Architecture

9.5.2 Two Tier Architecture

9.5.3 Three tier Architecture

9.6 FAT SERVERS AND THE FAT CLIENTS

9.6.1 Fat Server Model

9.6.2 Fat Client Model

9.7 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLIENT SERVER ARCHITECTURE

9.8 TYPES OF SERVERS

9.8.1 File Server

9.8.2 Database Server

9.8.3 Transaction Server

9.8.4 Groupware Servers

9.8.5 Application Server

9.9 CLIENT SIDE PROGRAMMING

9.9.1 JavaScript

9.9.2 AJAX

9.9.3 Applets

9.10 SERVER SIDE PROGRAMMING

9.10.1 Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

9.10.2 Servlet

9.10.3 Java Server Pages (JSP)

9.10.4 J2EEE

9.10.5 Java Beans

9.10.6 Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)


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