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# GATE Electronics & Communication Vol-9- Communication Systems

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PUBLISHED FOR GATE 2018

 Edition 8th Authors R K Kanodia & Ashish Murolia Publisher NODIA Pages 597 Binding Paper Back Language English

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SALIENT FEATURES

• Brief Theory

• Problem Solving Methodology

• Fundamental Concepts & Formulae Review

• Vast Question book with Full Solutions

• Multiple Choice Questions, Memory Based Questions and Numerical Types Questions

• Full width coverage of GATE Syllabus

• Well explained and error free solutions

CHAPTER 1 RANDOM VARIABLE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 PROBABILITY

1.2.1 Joint Probability

1.2.2 Conditional Probability

1.2.3 Statistical Independence

1.3 RANDOM VARIABLE

1.3.1 Discrete Random Variable

1.3.2 Continuous Random Variable

1.4 TRANSFORMATION OF RANDOM VARIABLES

1.5 MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES

1.6 STATISTICAL AVERAGE OF RANDOM VARIABLE

1.6.1 Mean or Expected Value

1.6.2 Moments

1.6.3 Variance

1.6.4 Standard Deviation

1.6.5 Characteristic Function

1.6.6 Joint Moments

1.6.7 Covariance

1.6.8 Correlation Coefficient

1.7 SOME IMPORTANT PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS

1.7.1 Binomial Distribution

1.7.2 Poisson Distribution

1.7.3 Gaussian Distribution

1.7.4 Rayleigh Distribution

EXERCISE 1.1

EXERCISE 1.2

EXERCISE 1.3

SOLUTIONS 1.1

SOLUTIONS 1.2

SOLUTIONS 1.3

CHAPTER 2 RANDOM PROCESS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 RANDOM PROCESS

2.2.1 Classification of Random Process

2.2.2 Probability Density Function of Random Process

2.2.3 Stationary Random Process

2.3 AVERAGES OF RANDOM PROCESS

2.3.1 Time Average of a Random Process

2.3.2 Ensemble Average of a Random Process

2.3.3 Autocorrelation function

2.3.4 Cross-Correlation Function

2.3.5 Autocovariance Function

2.4 ERGODIC PROCESS

2.5 WIDE SENSE STATIONARY PROCESS

2.6 POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY

2.6.1 Wiener-Khintchine Theorem

2.6.2 Properties of Power Spectral Density

2.6.3 Cross Spectral Density

2.7 SUPERPOSITION AND MODULATION

2.8 LINEAR SYSTEM

EXERCISE 2.1

EXERCISE 2.2

EXERCISE 2.3

SOLUTIONS 2.1

SOLUTIONS 2.2

SOLUTIONS 2.3

CHAPTER 3 NOISE

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 SOURCES OF NOISE

3.2.1 External Noise

3.2.2 Internal Noise

3.2.3 Other Noise Sources

3.3 AVAILABLE NOISE POWER

3.4 CHARACTERIZATION OF NOISE IN SYSTEM

3.4.1 Signal to Noise Ratio

3.4.2 Noise Figure of a System

3.4.3 Noise Temperature

3.4.4 Relation Between Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure

3.4.5 Noise Characterization of Cascaded Linear Devices

3.4.6 Attenuator Noise Temperature and Noise Figure

3.5 WHITE NOISE

3.6 NARROWBAND NOISE

3.6.1 Mathematical Expression of Narrowband Noise

3.6.2 Properties of Narrowband Noise

3.7 NOISE BANDWIDTH

EXERCISE 3.1

EXERCISE 3.2

EXERCISE 3.3

SOLUTIONS 3.1

SOLUTIONS 3.2

SOLUTIONS 3.3

CHAPTER 4 AMPLITUDE MODULATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 AMPLITUDE MODULATION

4.2.1 Envelope of AM Wave

4.2.2 Percentage of Modulation

4.2.3 Modulation Index

4.2.4 Over Modulation and Envelope Distortion

4.2.5 Power Content in AM Signal

4.2.6 Modulation Efficiency

4.2.7 Single-tone Amplitude Modulation

4.2.8 Multiple-Tone Amplitude Modulation

4.2.9 Peak Envelope Power

4.2.10 Frequency Spectrum of AM Wave

4.2.11 Transmission Bandwidth of AM Wave

4.2.12 Generation of AM Waves

4.2.13 Demodulation of AM waves

4.3 DSB-SC AM SIGNAL

4.3.1 Power Content in DSB-SC AM Signal

4.3.2 Frequency Spectrum of DSB-SC AM Wave

4.3.3 Transmission Bandwidth of DSB-SC Signal

4.3.4 Generation of DSB-SC Signal

4.3.5 Demodulation of DSB-SC AM Signal

4.4 SSB-SC AM SIGNAL

4.4.1 Generation of SSB-SC Signal

4.4.2 Power Content in SSB Signal

4.5 VESTIGIAL-SIDEBAND AM SIGNAL

4.6 NOISE IN AM SYSTEM

4.6.1 Noise in DSB Modulation System

4.6.2 Noise in SSB Modulation System

4.6.3 Noise in Amplitude Modulation System

EXERCISE 4.1

EXERCISE 4.2

EXERCISE 4.3

SOLUTIONS 4.1

SOLUTIONS 4.2

SOLUTIONS 4.3

CHAPTER 5 ANGLE MODULATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 ANGLE MODULATION

5.3 TYPES OF ANGLE MODULATION

5.3.1 Phase Modulation System

5.3.2 Frequency Modulation System

5.4 MODULATION INDEX

5.5 TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH OF ANGLE MODULATED SIGNAL

5.5.1 Deviation Ratio

5.5.2 Expression of Transmission Bandwidth in Terms of Deviation Ratio

5.6 POWER IN ANGLE MODULATED SIGNAL

5.7 TYPE OF FM SIGNAL

5.7.1 Narrowband FM

5.7.2 Wideband FM

5.7.3 Narrowband to Wideband Conversion

EXERCISE 5.1

EXERCISE 5.2

EXERCISE 5.3

SOLUTIONS 5.1

SOLUTIONS 5.2

SOLUTIONS 5.3

CHAPTER 6 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 SAMPLING PROCESS

6.2.1 Sampling Theorem

6.2.2 Explanation of Sampling Theorem

6.2.3 Nyquist Rate

6.2.4 Nyquist Interval

6.3 PULSE MODULATION

6.3.1 Analog Pulse Modulation

6.3.2 Digital Pulse Modulation

6.4 PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

6.4.1 Natural Sampling (Gating)

6.4.2 Instantaneous Sampling (Flat-Top PAM)

6.5 PULSE CODE MODULATION

6.5.1 Sampling

6.5.2 Quantization

6.5.3 Encoding

6.6 TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH IN A PCM SYSTEM

6.7 NOISE CONSIDERATION IN PCM

6.7.1 Quantization Noise

6.7.2 Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio

6.7.3 Channel Noise

6.7.4 Companding

6.9 DELTA MODULATION

6.9.1 Noise Consideration in Delta Modulation

6.10 MULTILEVEL SIGNALING

6.10.1 Baud

6.10.2 Bits per Symbol

6.10.3 Relation Between Baud and Bit Rate

6.10.4 Relation Between Bit Duration and Symbol Duration

6.10.5 Transmission Bandwidth

6.11 MULTIPLEXING

6.11.1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)

6.11.2 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

EXERCISE 6.1

EXERCISE 6.2

EXERCISE 6.3

SOLUTIONS 6.1

SOLUTIONS 6.2

SOLUTIONS 6.3

CHAPTER 7 INFORMATION THEORY AND CODING

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 INFORMATION

7.3 ENTROPY

7.4 INFORMATION RATE

7.5 SOURCE CODING

7.5.1 Average Code-Word Length

7.5.2 Source Coding Theorem

7.5.3 Coding Efficiency

7.5.4 Efficiency of Extended Source

7.6 SOURCE CODING SCHEME

7.6.1 Prefix coding

7.7 SHANNON-FANO CODING

7.8 HUFFMAN CODING

7.9 DISCRETE CHANNEL MODELS

7.9.1 Channel Transition Probability

7.9.2 Entropy Functions for Discrete Memoryless Channel

7.9.3 Mutual Information

7.9.4 Channel Capacity

7.9.5 Channel Efficiency

7.10 BINARY SYMMETRIC CHANNEL

EXERCISE 7.1

EXERCISE 7.2

EXERCISE 7.3

SOLUTIONS 7.1

SOLUTIONS 7.2

SOLUTIONS 7.3

CHAPTER 8 DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 DIGITAL BANDPASS MODULATION

8.3 BANDPASS DIGITAL SYSTEMS

8.4 COHERENT BINARY SYSTEMS

8.4.1 Amplitude Shift Keying

8.4.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying

8.4.3 Coherent Binary Frequency Shift Keying

8.5 NONCOHERENT BINARY SYSTEMS

8.5.1 Differential Phase Shift Keying

8.5.2 Noncoherent Frequency Shift Keying

8.6 MULTILEVEL MODULATED BANDPASS SIGNALING

8.6.1 Relations between Bit and Symbol Characteristics for Multilevel Signaling

8.6.2 M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)

8.6.3 Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)

8.6.5 M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK)

8.7 COMPARISON BETWEEN VARIOUS DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEME

8.8 CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM

8.8.1 Average Transmitted Power

EXERCISE 8.1

EXERCISE 8.2

EXERCISE 8.3

SOLUTIONS 8.1

SOLUTIONS 8.2

SOLUTIONS 8.3

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 PSEUDO NOISE SEQUENCE

9.2.1 Time Period of PN Sequence Waveform

9.3.1 Need of Spread Spectrum Modulation

9.3.2 Processing Gain of Spread Spectrum Modulation

9.4.1 Processing Gain of DS/BPSK System

9.4.2 Probability of Error in DS/BPSK System

9.4.3 Jamming Margin

9.5.1 Processing Gain of FH/MFSK System

9.5.2 Types of FHSS System

9.6 MULTIPLE ACCESS COMMUNICATION

9.7 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS

9.7.1 Probability of Error in a CDMA System

EXERCISE 9.1

EXERCISE 9.2

EXERCISE 9.3

SOLUTIONS 9.1

SOLUTIONS 9.2

SOLUTIONS 9.3

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